Patanjali explains to us how to get out of suffering. He claims if we practice non-reaction and non- attachement that we will reach pure awareness. He also states that if we open our hearts will we reach enlightenment. He furter says that faith, energy, mindfullness and wisdom form the path to realization.

The 5 kleishas – poisons are defined by Patanjali as follows:

  1. Attachment
  2. Aversion
  3. Egoism
  4. Fear of death
  5. Ignorance

Patanjali´s 8 components of yoga are: asana, yama, niyama, pranayama, dhyana, dharana, integration and samadhi.


Yama and Niyamas are the ethical codes of yoga. They are as follows:

Yama – external discipline

  1. Ahimsa – non-violence
  2. Aparigraha – non-greed
  3. Asteya – non-stealing
  4. Brahmacharya – abstinence
  5. Satya – truthfulness

Niyama – internal discipline

  1. Ishvara Pranidhana – surrender
  2. Santosha – contentment
  3. Saucha – purity
  4. Svadhyaya – self-study
  5. Tapas – self- discipline


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